What is new 2015








Steady air pollution; how it works for Iran

In recent times it is very much talked about the air pollutants and the harms caused by such pollutants in the Iranian urban areas. Like previous years in big cities like Tehran and Tabriz and other center of provinces the schools are closed and the citizens are warned continuously about the dangers and risks of air pollution. Reportedly the number of life losses increased considerably causing much more worriment among the citizens. But the most considerable is the case of the steadiness of the air pollution and its continuation for long time in Tehran that is said exceeded three weeks recently.

The reason for steady winter time air pollution in the Iranian urban areas particularly those with high and dense population could be very likely found in the way of life and appliance usage of the citizens. Any home may well have some fires burning in it. Especially if there is a gas water heater, furnace, oven, gas fireplace, gas heaters which all are type of combustion appliance, you’ve got fire. But what’s going on inside those appliances, and what are the needs of such fiery contraptions? Let’s take a look at the basics of combustion.

When the fire is burning inside a home fireplace, furnace, water heater or so on, it’s combining air with natural gas. Air is about 80% nitrogen and 20% oxygen. Natural gas is mostly methane, which is one carbon bonded to 4 hydrogens. It’s the simplest form of a hydrocarbon in fact.

The burner in the combustion appliance mixes the air and gas together and provides the spark for the chemical reaction to occur and then you have fire! When the air and gas burn, the product is heat and exhaust gases. The heat is indeed what we’re after, and the exhaust gases are what we need to get rid of. The actual reaction that provides us with the heat doesn’t involve the nitrogen. Even though it’s the majority of the air that goes in, it mostly just passes intact with no change. When everything goes on properly, we get complete combustion, and the chemical process looks like this:

chemical reaction

[Laclede Gas (2015) For a Clean Environment, http://www.lacledegas.com/customer/environment.php  ]

The combustion appliances are ordinarily set up to mix enough air with the gas so that the combustion is always complete. Actually since the temperature and pressure of the air in home changes, therefore affecting how much oxygen gets delivered, the combustion appliance is set up to deliver excess air. However, if things go bad and incomplete combustion occurs, we get carbon dioxide’s evil cousin that is carbon monoxide, CO. It is actually unwanted and luckily with natural gas, the combustion is usually complete when everything is working properly, and there will be little to no carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases. But when things don’t work perfectly, a little bit of carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases isn’t a problem as long as the heat exchanger and flue are intact and get all the exhaust out of the house [1]. So, it is seen that normally the combustion appliances take air and fuel and turn a molecule of methane gas and 2 molecules of oxygen into heat and exhaust gases that are 2 molecules of water and a molecule of carbon dioxide.

Since more than a decade ago the usage of gas home appliances developed in Iranian urban areas enormously and widely. In almost all of the newly constructed houses and apartments and also old-fashioned buildings there is now modern fireplaces, water and air heaters which all works with natural gas that is supplied easily to all homes through the urban gas reticulation. By arrival of cold seasons the consumption of natural gas for heating the homes mainly and also other usages rises rapidly particularly in night time. It leads to the accumulation of a large amount of water vapor and carbon dioxide in homes that is evacuated from homes and scattered all around the residential places and the urban environment. Because of the temperature inversion the immensely produced water vapor and carbon dioxide is trapped around the residential areas and cover everywhere. By arrival of the morning and start of the urban activities the air pollutants produced by the vehicles and moving and fixed combustion systems enter the urban environment and dispersed everywhere. But presence of the molecules of carbon dioxide and water vapor that is twice in number with respect to carbon dioxide molecules catch up and absorb as well as adsorb the suspending air pollutants and trapping the suspended air pollutants limit their motion and cause them to be kept in and above the residential and urban places. That is why the air pollutants remain steadily for a long time in the urban areas by when an effective temperature rise or change remove the condition of inversion. Noteworthy is that such a condition emerges in almost all the densely populated areas all around Iran when the cold season starts and continues. There are frequent and numerous records and reports in this connection from different cities like Tabriz, Isfahan, Shiraz, Mashad and very many other urban locations. It shows that how effectively acts and plays a great role the water vapor produced by the gas combustion appliances in homes. So in addition to the plans for reducing the amount of the air pollutants in Iran the authorities should take part and either set and implement plans for reducing the trend of the water vapor production in the winter and cold season times which main source is apparently the nightly work of the gas combustion home appliances like gas fireplaces and heaters in the urban and densely residential locations. The model is illustrated as below.

inversion model I



[1] Bailes A (2011) Fire! — Understanding What’s Happening in Your Combustion Appliances, Energy Vanguard Blog, http://www.energyvanguard.com/blog-building-science-HERS-BPI/bid/48480/Fire-Understanding-What-s-Happening-in-Your-Combustion-Appliances

Parviz Tarikhi

31 December




Contributing to a New International Course on Radar Remote Sensing

20151224_Parviz Tarikhi IV- IST

A group photo with the organizers and participants of the course  

A 4–day training course on “RADAR Remote Sensing (Synthetic Aperture Radar, SAR) and Image Processing” was organized by the Institute of Space Technology (IST) in collaboration with Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) from 21st to 24th December 2015 at the National Center for Remote Sensing and Geo-Informatics (NCRG) in Karachi, Pakistan.

20151223_Parviz Tarikhi V- IST

Conducting the workshop session of the course 

The objective of the course was to introduce SAR techniques, the interpretation of SAR images and use of SAR data for various environmental applications. This course planned to equip the participants with the basic principles of Radar Remote Sensing (specifically Synthetic Aperture Radar SAR) and its imaging techniques for environmental assessment. The course was included hands-on exercises based on different themes. Based on the invitation of the IST as a resource person I conducted lectures and workshops with tutorials on the following subjects during this

20151222_Parviz Tarikhi VI- IST

Lecturing and explaining the topics in the course session 


  • SAR data interpretation techniques; Lectures and workshops
  • DInSAR, PSInSAR and other InSAR applications
  • InSAR introduction
  • Workshop on image fusion
  • Workshop on SAR basics


The detailed topics performed by me is listed as below:


List of the lectures

Session’s topic Time in minutes
21 Dec 2015-1 SAR Image Acquisition and Characteristics 90
22 Dec 2015-1 SAR Data Products and its Applications 60
22 Dec 2015-2 SAR Data Pre-processing and Processing 60
22 Dec 2015-3 SAR Data Processing by software and SAR Data Products and Applications Workshop 90
23 Dec 2015-1 Statistical Feature Extraction 60
23 Dec 2015-2 Polarimetric Data Processing and Interpretation 60
23 Dec 2015-3 SAR Image Fusion with Optical Data 60
23 Dec 2015-4 Feature Extraction, Polarimetric SAR and Data Fusion Workshop 120
24 Dec 2015-1 InSAR Introduction 60
24 Dec 2015-2 Differential InSAR, PS InSAR and other InSAR Applications 60
24 Dec 2015-3 SAR Interferometry Workshop 90
20151224_Parviz Tarikhi I- IST

Discussing the topics with participants of the course

My third travel to Pakistan and the second to Karachi was indeed started on Sunday 20 December from the Imam Khomeini International Airport early in the morning. I went to Karachi via Abu Dhabi by Etihad Airways. I reached Karachi in the evening at 16:45 and picked up by a SUPARCO officer and then went to the Officer’s Mess in SUPARCO site staying in room VIP-II. The course started in the morning on Monday 21 December. In the afternoon I gave my first presentation. The next day on Tuesday I gave three presentations in the morning and afternoon sessions. After the end of my presentation in the afternoon I accompanying other international participants went to the seaside in Karachi. It took long to reach there since the city is very much populated and as they say 23 million people lives in Karachi. We

20151222_Parviz Tarikhi IV- IST

Lecturing and presenting in the course

had dinner in the Kababjees restaurant next to Indian Ocean. The view and weather was too nice. After having a delicious dinner there and watching the sea we backed the residence. In the third day of the course I gave four lectures in the morning and afternoon sessions. Topics were about feature extraction, classification, polarimetry and data fusion. I get tired. I give four presentations. In the last day of the course I gave three presentations in morning. The topics was about SAR Interferometry and related techniques. After the end of my presentations there was an award ceremony. I receive some gifts. Mr.  Muhammad Nasim Shah and Dr. Badar Ghauri, the head of IST, presented the awards. I later join international participants for lunch while Mr. Nasim Shah and Dr. Ghauri were present. In the afternoon I prepared myself to leave Karachi to home at night. I left Karachi to Abu Dhabi at about 10 o’clock at night. I reached home the next day on Friday early in the morning.

20151224_Parviz Tarikhi X- IST

Meeting with Mr. Muhammad Nasim Shah after many years in the closing day of the course



A group photo with the organizers and participants of the course in the Indian Ocean Shore; I am standing in far left.


Click here for more details about the international course on Radar Remote Sensing and Image Processing in Pakistan and also access to the files of power point presentations.


20151029_automn IIAutumn is really arrived

October 29 is the day that the view of the environment actually changes. It is now autumn with its beauties and magnificence. The photos show the environment around home.



1987_Parviz Tarikhi-IIMeeting an old friend after years

After 28 years I had the luck to meet an old friend on September 12. He is Jamshid Moradi. We both performed our military service in the era of war-time between Iraq and Iran. For around a year we performed our compulsory military service in the north of Tehran and south of Tehran in Kahrizak. Meeting Jamshid was nice and we had time to talk about the military service time and its dramatic memories. This is a photo of we both taken when a few days later Jamshid dispatched to the war front to do the remaining of his military service. In the photo below Jamshid is seen in right side.

1987_Jamshid Moradi & Parviz Tarikhi- II


In Caspian Sea shore

20150727_Zohreh-Parviz-Kamyar IFrom 26 to 29 July we travel to the Caspian Sea shore and stay in Hotel GilMaz near Chaboksar. We go there via Chalus Road. We take the rooms 307 and 308. We are the only family residing there from the space agency. Walking at the sea side in mornings and late in the evenings and early at night is pleasant. On the second day of our travel we drive to the tele-cabin of Ramsar. It is a warm day. All the family takes the tele-cabin to go to top of the green hills with the height of 700m. It takes around 15 minutes to reach the top. It is nice. Returning home we drive to Lahijan. After a shopping in Lahijan we head to Rasht where we stay there for several hours. In Roudbar we also make more shopping.

20150726_Zohreh-Shahryar-Kamyar I


Happy New Solar Year 1394 and Happy spring!



Novrouz around us



February 25:

A review about my book

20140820_The Iranian Space Endeavor-IA review made by A. M. Strauss about my book The Iranian Space Endeavor – Ambitions and Reality is now published in Choice, Vol. 52 (6), February 2015. The reviewer says:

“Topics covered include the history of Iranian aeronautics from the earliest times through the formation of the Iranian Air Force and the national airline; Iran’s policy-making entities and its aerospace companies; and the country’s space research and services, domestic spacecraft, and launch vehicles. … This book fills a gap in the space program literature, providing a rare inside look at Iran’s space program and its plans and capabilities. Summing Up: Highly recommended. All academic, general, and professional audiences.”


February 21:

First winter snow

We are witnessing the first snowfall this winter here at home. It is the 50th day of winter and there will be a water scarcity in coming months particularly in summer. The climate moves to more dryness in this area.



January 24:

Space Agency backs to Telecom Ministry

By the approval of the Administrative Supreme Council the Iranian Space Agency backs to the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. On September 27, 2010 the space agency annexed to the presidential office of the state to be managed under direct supervision of the head of the presidential office. The agency was established in February 2004 as an autonomous entity in the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology to work under supervision of the Space Supreme Council presided by the President of the State. Being the deputy of the Minister of Communications and Information Technology the president of the agency was in the meantime the secretary of the Space Supreme Council. Annexation of the space agency to presidential office was considered illegal while no effort was taken to legalize its activity in its new position. It led to an unprecedented turmoil in the agency and its administration as well as its plans and programs, causing lot of losses and problems to its experts and personnel. It is hoped that this new action will lead to a favorable result in terms of the administration of space agency, its plans and programs and the situation of its employees.


Mr Abdol-Jabbar TebyaniJanuary 18:

Farewell to a great teacher

On Wednesday January 14 I received the sad news on demise of one of the great teacher I have ever seen. Mr. Abdol-Jabbar Tebyani an able teacher of mathematics passed away at the age of 76 following a long-lasting disease. He was hospitalized in a hospital in Tehran for a while. His funeral took place in Maragheh the birth place of both he and mine as well. The next day on Thursday I and my wife attended the obituary ceremonies for demise of him in Maragheh. Mr. Abdol-Jabbar Tebyani (1938-2015) was my teacher of mathematics in the course of my high school studies about 40 years ago. I learned much in mathematics from him and more significantly the way of logic thinking.

[Photo source: Mehdi Panahi’s facebook post]


January 2:

New books in the way

Long ago I was contemplating to realize two books. It was when I was working hard on the book ‘The Iranian Space Endeavor- Ambitions and Reality.’ After finishing it that was published by Springer/Praxis early in the second half of 2014 and will be there for eternity according a friend, I had time to think over about creating the new books which idea was in my mind for a while. It is now about half a year that I am working hard on those two books. I thought to conduct the work on the books simultaneously since I believe that it makes me to do the job with more motivation, energy and enthusiasm. One of the two books that I am working on is on my experience on Radar techniques focusing on the marine applications of the Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry and polarimetry that is a unique experience and I have been developing it since years ago. It is supported by the international entities both for cooperation and publication. The other book is an analytic essay with deep insight on the developments in my life. Especial focus is made on my involvements with space technology inland and out; what I have experienced personally in the course of about 20 years of work in that domain nationally and internationally. Both of the books are written in English and it is hoped that they will attract considerable readership.


January 1:

Visitors of my blog

Since its creation in 2003 my blog have been visited by a large number of the visitors around the globe. Although the exact number of the visitors is not available it exceeds 40,000.  The map below shows the distribution of the visitors in terms of their countries between January 30, 2003 and December 22, 2014.  The highest number of visitors is from USA, while India, United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, France, Italy, Malaysia, Japan, Australia, Russian Federation, Turkey, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Pakistan are the next respectively. The number of the US visitors exceeds two-fold of the number of visitors from the second country in the list, India.

In addition to the front page of the blog with around 4,200 views the ‘education’, ‘ISNET/CRTEAN Training Course on SAR Imagery: Processing, Interpretation and Applications’, ‘InSAR DEM; why it is better?’, ‘gallery’, ‘InSAR New Generation’, ‘Maragheh: Heaven’s Gate’, ‘INSAR DEMS; ACHIEVEMENTS AND BENEFITS’, ‘COPUOS-BUREAU’, ‘Radar DEM generation; achievements and benefits’, ‘Iran’s space program; Riding high for peace and pride’ and ‘New developments for GEOSS’ are the most viewed pages in my blog. It indicates that most of the visitors are interested in the scientific aspects in my blog and international topics are the next preference of the visitors.

Distribution of visits to my blog since 20030130


Happy New Year 2015!

Dear Colleague/Friend,
Happy New Year 2015!
Wishing a prosperous and blessing New Year for you, your dearest and nearest ones!
Parviz Tarikhi

E-mail: parviz_tarikhi@hotmail.com
Blog: https://parviztarikhi.wordpress.com

Happy New Year 2015


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Dear visitor,

Thanks for visiting this page!

I would appreciate your comments and suggestions on the content and set-up.

Parviz Tarikhi






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